non-tariff measures

Titre Description
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There are differentials in the conclusion of scholars as to what undermines Africa’s export flows to the European Union (EU) and United State of America (USA). While the impact of tariffs has been reduced due to the unilateral preferential...

- Julien Berthoumieu and Antoine Bouët

This research paper is aimed at understanding why border trade policies are today complemented with behind-the-border policies like output subsidies, R&D subsidies, and public R&D investments. This is a new type of protectionism that...

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The preponderance and stringency of product standards have implications for global trade, especially for developing countries. Despite the importance of this issue to Africa, only a few empirical studies exist in the area. It is on this basis...

- Hoda El-Enbaby, Rana Hendy and Chahir Zaki

According to the World Trade Organization (WTO) standards, countries are allowed to adapt regulations under the Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary (SPS) and Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) agreements in order to protect human, animal and plant health...

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